The determination of gender using skeletal fragments or human remains is quite important. It was demonstrated that length of hand bones is generically dimorphic in several nations. The present study aimed to determine gender using phalanx length and the ratio of phalanxes to whole finger length with direct hand radiographic images.
The present study was conducted using direct hand X-ray images of 60 individuals (30 Female and 30 Male), who applied to Karabük University Karabük Training and Research Hospital, without hand pathologies and orthopedic surgery history. The phalanx length was measured by combining the basis and the midpoints of the caput ends of the measured phalanx. Finger length was measured by measuring the straight line (along the phalanx media axis) between the phalanx proximalis basis and phalanx distalis caput midpoints. Measurements demonstrated that the mean phalanx proximalis, media and distalis length were higher in males, and were 4.17 cm, 2.62 cm, 2.03 cm, respectively. In females, the same were measured as 3.82 cm, 2.40 cm, and 1.79 cm, respectively. The ratio of phalanx proximalis length of first finger to the first finger length, phalanx proximalis length of fourth finger to the fourth finger length and phalanx proximalis length of fifth finger to the fifth finger length were significantly higher in females when compared to males. Discriminant analysis revealed that the phalanx length measurements could discriminate gender in 83.30% of the cases. The phalanx length to finger length ratio could estimate 70.00% of male individuals and 83.30% of female individuals. Phalanxes are suitable bones for accurate determination of gender. Radiography could be used in conducting reliable hand bone measurements to determine gender. A population-specific database could be developed by increasing the number of images used in the present study.
Phalanx, X-Ray, gender determine, discriminant analysis