Infective endocarditis (IE) is among the most fatal infectious diseases. Since the introduction of various intracardiac devices and interventions, the clinical aspects of IE have rapidly evolved. In this paper, we aim to define the contemporary characteristics of patients diagnosed with definite IE and to identify the predictors associated with mortality. Through retrospective analysis of patients with TEE proven vegetation, those fulfilling the modified Duke criteria for definite IE were identified. Patient characteristics in relation to clinical outcomes and mortality were analyzed. Out of 50 patients (mean age 57±15.9 years, 34% female), 72% was native-valve endocarditis of which only 32% had a predisposing valve disease such as rheumatic valve. The rate of prosthetic-valve IE was 10% and that of device-related IE was 18%. The most common causative organisms were S. aureus (16%), Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (16%), Enterococci (14%) and Viridans streptococci (12%). In-hospital mortality was 24% and was associated with concomitant diabetes, coronary artery disease, higher baseline creatinine, anemia, occurrence of cranial complications and absence of surgery during the index hospitalization. Regression analyses revealed that cerebral emboli were the only predictor of early mortality, possibly through delayed surgical treatment. In conclusion, our small cohort of definite IE patients showed that contemporary characteristics of IE has evolved with higher rates of device-related IE. Within established prognostic factors, cerebral emboli and timing of surgery are intervening factors, which suggests that the timing of surgical treatment, particularly in patients with neurologic complications, needs to be evaluated when shaping future perspectives on IE.
Definite infective endocarditis, cerebral emboli, surgery