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Effects of Cigarette Smoke on Tissue Trace Element Concentration of Rats Exposed to Second-hand Smoke

Original Article

Effects of Cigarette Smoke on Tissue Trace Element Concentration of Rats Exposed to Second-hand Smoke

Kivanc Ergen, Furuzan Yildiz, Mustafa Ozcan, Mustafa Cekmen, Pelin Tanyeri, Tijen Utkan, Yunus Karakoc

   

Abstract
Trace elements have an important effect on and play a key role in a variety of the processes necessary for life. Studies have indicated a definite correlation between content of trace elements and many common diseases. It has been concluded that smoking may be a substantial source of intake of these hazardous elements, not only to the smoker, but to nonsmokers via passive smoke, as well. Even passive intake of such elements can change the metabolism of other trace elements and influence their concentrations. In order to assess their potential role in some human diseases, it is necessary to measure trace element concentrations in various tissues in experimental models. In this study, liver, kidney and spleen tissue samples from rats exposed to secondhand smoke were analysed for Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Mn and Co trace element levels by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Cr, Mn, Fe and Co levels in the liver, Fe and Co levels in the kidney, and Zn, Cu, Mn and Co levels in the spleen were significantly lower than those of controls, but Cu levels in the kidney and Fe levels in the spleen were significantly higher than those of controls. Our data suggest that chronic exposure to cigarette smoke alters the trace element concentration of various tissues in rats exposed to secondhand smoke. These alterations may be attributable to oxidative stress produced by cumulative effect of inhaled smoke rather than the toxic effect of absorbed toxic metals. Low Mn levels in the liver and spleen, increased Cu levels in kidney and Fe levels in the spleen, and changes in the metabolism of Zn, Fe and Cu may be indicators of oxidative stress. Decreases in Co and Cr levels in rats exposed to secondhand smoke may also be related to the intake of the toxic trace elements present in cigarette smoke.

Key words: toxic elements, trace elements, cigarette smoke, oxygen free radical, oxidative stress

Med-Science. 2012; 1(1): 1-12

 
Medicine Science Vol:1 Issue:! Year:2012 PP:1-76

Multiple Organ Pathologies Underlying in Sudden Natural Deaths

Original Article

Multiple Organ Pathologies Underlying in Sudden Natural Deaths

Bora Ozdemir, Osman Celbis, Rezzan Onal, Bulent Mizrak, Yunus Karakoc

   

Abstract
Aim of this study was to identify cause of death and related histological findings, and to find
relationship between them in sudden natural deaths (SND) that were subjected to medicolegal
autopsy. Totally 209 SND cases were enrolled in the study. After medicolegal autopsy, cause
and manner of death were identified. A formula was formed to show the ratio of frequency of
histological findings to cause of deaths in systems. By this formula, affected systems were
compared. In SND cases, the ratio of extracardiac findings to extracardiac deaths was higher
than that of cardiovascular findings to cardiovascular deaths (5.53 versus 2.00). We
concluded that cardiovascular pathologies are still the most common in SND. The higher rate
of extracardiac histological findings doesn’t mean higher rate of SND due to extracardiac
causes. Therefore, histological findings must be evaluated with great attention for preventing
incorrect conclusions to identify causes of deaths in SND.

Key words: sudden natural death, cause of death, histological findings, manner of death, sudden cardiac death, medicolegal autopsy, forensic medicine

Med-Science. 2012; 1(1): 13-26

 

Oxidative Stress Status, Metabolic Profile and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Original Article

Oxidative Stress Status, Metabolic Profile and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Karabulut AB, Cakmak M, Kiran RT, Sahin I

   

Abstract
We aimed to investigate the relationships between Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) and oxidative stress status, metabolic profile and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome
Methods: We measured Body Mass Index (BMI), glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL, high sensitive CRP (hsCRP), insulin, AST and ALT, Malondialdehyde (MDA), erythrocyte reduced glutathione (GSH), Nitric Oxide (NO) levels in PCOS patients and in normal individuals.
We used spectrophotometrical method to determine glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL, AST and ALT levels. Nepholometrical method was used to measure hsCRP. Immunoassay method was used for insulin. Oxidant status was evaluated by using erythrocyte MDA and NO levels, while antioxidant status was evaluated by GSH levels.
Results: Study population were consist of 32 women with PCOS (Study group) and 32 healthy volunteers (Control group). In study group, we found statistically higher levels of MDA, NO (p

Key words: PCOS, oxidants, antioxidants, MDA, NO, GSH

Med-Science. 2012; 1(1): 27-34

 

Forearm Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Young Adult Mobile Phone Users

Original Article

Forearm Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Young Adult Mobile Phone Users

Muharrem Cidem, Cengiz Bahadir, Yunus Karakoc, Ilhan Karacan

   

Abstract
The electromagnetic radiation of mobile phone (MP) can produce a variety of adverse health effects. Bone mineral density (BMD) of rats exposed to radiation emitted by MPs was found to be a statistically non-significant decrease. The aim of the present study was to investigate forearm BMD in healthy young adult MP users. Two hundred and sixty three healthy subjects (86 male MP users, 14 male controls and 97 female MP users, 66 female controls) were included in this study. Ages ranged from 20 to 35 years. Dominant hands were the rightsight in all cases. BMD was measured in the proximal femur and right ultradistal (UD) radius using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The mean UD radius BMD was statistically significant lower in MP user than non-MP users. Binary logistic regression analysis indicated that a risk for osteopenia was found to be higher in females than males (Odds ratio=6.66 P=0.006), and in MP users than MP non-users (Odds ratio=7.92 P=0.004). In conclusion, MP can cause osteopenia in the forearm of healthy young adult females.

Key words: mobile phone, bone mineral density, electromagnetic field

Med-Science. 2012; 1(1): 35-40

 

Volar Dislocation of the Distal Radioulnar Joint Associated with Ulnar Styloid Fracture

Case Report

Volar Dislocation of the Distal Radioulnar Joint Associated with Ulnar Styloid Fracture

Gokhan Meric, Ozkan Kose, Mehmet Gem,Tugrul Colakoglu

   

Abstract
Volar dislocation of the distal radioulnar joint is a rare injury which is commonly missed in emergency departments. A detailed history, careful physical examination, proper radiographic imaging along with a high index of suspicion is required to diagnose these injuries. We report a case of a 33 year-old man who sustained an acute, volar dislocation of the distal radioulnar joint associated ulnar styloid fracture and highlight the important clinical and radiological features, which can help in timely recognition.

Key words: distal radioulnar joint, dislocation, styloid fracture

Med-Science. 2012; 1(1): 41-46

 

Primitive neuroectodermal tumor coexistent with anaplastic ganglioglioma

Case Report

Primitive neuroectodermal tumor coexistent with anaplastic ganglioglioma

Rezzan Erguvan-Önal, Çağatay Önal, Metin Şener, Bülent Mızrak, Erol Duran, Nasuhi Engin Aydın

   

Abstract
Primitive neuroectodermal tumors are among the most common tumors of childhood and the most frequent location of them is cerebellum. Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors are uncommon. These tumors, regardless of site of origin, may show differentiations towards different cell lines such as glial, neuronal, and mesenchymal. To our knowledge, there is only one case in the literature describing ganglioglial differentiation in a cerebellar medulloblastoma. The presented report discloses a supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor coexistent with anaplastic ganglioglioma in a 46-year-old man. Both components of the tumor disappeared after radiotherapy, with a proceedent glioblastomatous differentiation in the follow-up period.

Key words: primitive neuroectodermal tumor, anaplastic ganglioglioma, glioblastoma multiforme, brain

Med-Science. 2012; 1(1): 47-54

 

Evaluation of the early and late examination in sexually assaulted child

Review Article

Evaluation of the early and late examination in sexually assaulted child

Bora Ozdemir, Osman Celbis

   

Abstract
In this paper, we evaluated procedures for performing and timing of the examination in sexually assaulted child. Priority management in admission must be considered for protecting the child’s health, since sexually abused child were already physical and psychological disturbed. We have to avoid receiving repeated history and unnecessary examinations, unless necessary. It almost certain that the management may not complete in a short time, repeated psychological examinations are inevitable in this situation. Examination should be considered as beginning of management and a part of the treatment procedure. Anogenital examination should be performed at early period and at once, and is important to avoid duplication of the same examination. In cases of acute sexual assault, emergent examinations are needed to identify injury, collect forensic evidence, prevent infections and for pregnancy prophylaxis. Since several signs may appear after a certain time in sexual assault, it is appropriate that control examinations should be performed after a period. As a result; while avoiding from repeated examinations, to avoid further trauma in abused child we may cause incomplete examination and elongation of management. One kept in mind that taking history for examination is different from expression of the crime.

Key words: Sexual assault, child abuse, timing of examination.

Med-Science. 2012; 1(1): 55-64

 

Epidemiology of Pediatric Brain Tumors

Review Article

Epidemiology of Pediatric Brain Tumors

Çağatay Önal

   

Abstract
Malignant brain tumors are one of the most important causes of death in pediatric age group. Even though there are some hints, evidenced data about the etiology is stil scarce. Ionizing radiation, N-nitroso compounds, pesticides, tobacco smoke, electromagnetic frequencies, infectious agents, parental occupational exposures, and medications can be listed as probable risk factors. The advances in technology, mainly in molecular biology and genetics, progressively contribute to the understanding of this unsolved problem. There is consensus about the cancerogenic effect of N-nitroso compounds and preventive role of vitamins.

Key words: brain, cancer, child, epidemiology, etiology, tumor

Med-Science. 2012; 1(1): 65-76