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The Influence of Excessive and Prolonged Ingestion of Honey on Sex Hormones and Prostate Specific Antigen in Adult Male Wistar Rats

Original Article

The Influence of Excessive and Prolonged Ingestion of Honey on Sex Hormones and Prostate Specific Antigen in Adult Male Wistar Rats

Dare W Nervey, Igbigbi S Pactrick, Avwioro O Godwin

 
   

Abstract
This investigation was designed to determine the effects of excessive and prolonged administration of honey on the reproductive hormones and prostate specific antigen in adult male Wistar rats. A total of twenty five wistar rats weighing between 210 – 220g were used for the study. The animals were divided into 2 experimental groups of ten rats each (n=10) and 1 control group of five rats, (n=5). Experimental groups 1 and 2 rats were administered with 5ml/kg body weight and 7.5ml/kg body weight of bee honey through orogastric tube (gavage) thrice a week for 10weeks. The serum male sex hormonal profile and prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels were determined at the end of administration and after 10weeks of treatment rest and results compared with control. Results at the end of treatment revealed that excessive consumption of honey has no significant effects on serum levels of follicle stimulating hormone; however, it depressed serum levels of luteinizing hormone, testosterone and increased the serum levels of progesterone and prolactin. Higher dose (7.5ml/kg body weight) had significant increase on serum levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA). After a period of 10weeks rest the serum hormonal levels became significantly higher except testosterone that was significantly depressed. Excessive consumption of honey appeared to have a deleterious effect on serum levels of testosterone but enhanced the production of follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and prostate specific antigen (PSA).

Key words: Honey, Excessive, Prolong, Hormone, Reproduction, Wistar Rats.

Med-Science. 2012; 1(3): 161-70

Medicine Science Vol:1 Issue:3 Year:2012 PP:161-243

Outlet forceps in modern era, A Dangerous instrument or an Art of Obstetrics?

Original Article

Outlet forceps in modern era, A Dangerous instrument or an Art of Obstetrics?

Gunvant Vaishnav, Jolly Vaishnav

   

Abstract
Abstract : Objective: To assess Feto maternal outcome in outlet forceps delivery. Method: 69 patients in the Labour room who delivered by outlet forceps at Dept. of Obs. and Gyn. Medical college, Baroda, India were analyzed for Feto maternal outcome. Result: Incidence of Wrigley’s outlet forceps delivery is 0.74% in our study. 78.26% were applied for primipara, as may be due to rigid perineum in primipara. 71 % in the age group of 16-25 years, common age of primipara. Age and obstetric outcome it is observed that operative interference is required frequently. Indications of forceps were also comparable with common indications with others. 68.12% baby with normal APGAR scoring. While 2.90% develop Severe Birth Asphyxia and 11.59% required Nursery admission while 15.94% required resuscitation at the time of birth, these shows that with forceps delivery the outcome is comparable to the vaginal delivery. Impression marks over face, abrasion over face are also comparable. Only one neonatal death occurred that was due to Neonatal septicaemia and 4.35% develop cephalhematoma which is slightly higher. The vaginal and cervical tear rates are also comparable. Only Two Patients develop PPH, one (1.45%) traumatic, while other (1.45%) develop Atonic PPH which are comparable to normal vaginal delivery and even after Caesarean section delivery. Only 1.45% patients develop urinary incontinence.
Conclusion: – Study performed using Wrigley’s outlet forceps application using ACOG guidelines, 2002/2011. We conclude that maternal and foetal outcome are comparable good with the vaginal delivery. Indicated forceps delivery can reduce the caesarean section rate. No major maternal or foetal morbidity / mortality found due to forceps in study group. We feel that the entire young obstetrician colleague must know the applications of forceps and should implement in practice to decrease the caesarean section rates. Even nowadays Government of India in BEmoc training for Medical Officer (MBBS) in service included the forceps and vaccume delivery in the training course so as to teach them the skill. So that they can help the Nation in lower down the Maternal Mortality Rate. So, we can say that the forceps application with all criteria’s fulfilled in a expert hand is an Art of Obstetrics and not a dangerous Instruments.

Key words: Outlet forceps, Foetal complications, Maternal complications,

Med-Science. 2012; 1(3): 171-176

Sexual risky behaviours among the youth in Kenya.

Original Article

Sexual risky behaviours among the youth in Kenya.

Dennis Magu, Marion Mutugi, Peter Wanzala, Lucy Ndahi

   

Abstract
Youth accounted for approximately 50% of new HIV infections across the globe . Lack of condom use is associated with the HIV/STI risks. SSA have majority of the youth with multiple partners during the previous 12 months. Though since 2000, condom use has increased by 10% .A cross sectional study was conducted during the month of August 2011 to February 2012. Various statistical packages were used such as chi square and multivariate analysis.
There was significant relationship between gender and condom use at the Universities P

Key words: Sexual, risky, behaviours,youth, Kenya

Med-Science. 2012; 1(3): 177-187

Lumbar spine and proximal femur BMD values in Turkish girls and the effect of precocious puberty on BMD.

Original Article

Lumbar spine and proximal femur BMD values in Turkish girls and the effect of precocious puberty on BMD.

Ersoy Kekilli, Mustafa Arif Aluçlu, Fatih Batı, İsmail Köksal

   

Abstract
Previous studies have shown no impairment in bone mineral density in girls with precocious and early puberty. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of precocious puberty on BMD and to measure average bone mineral density in Turkish girls. Fourteen girls between the ages of 5-10 (7.57 ± 1.83 year) who had new diagnosed precocious and early puberty were included in this study. BMD was measured in the posterior-anterior projection at the lumbar spine and at the right hip using DEXA. Correlation analysis was performed among BMD in all sub-regions. According to age, new average BMD values of sub-regionals in lumbar spine and proximal femur were calculated by linear regression formula leading to an average value of the lumbar spine total BMD in normal population. According to new average ± SD BMD of all sub-regions, simulated new Z-scores of each girl in proximal femur and lumbar spine were calculated and statistically compared. We found significant Z-score correlation between proximal femur and lumbar spine (r=0.70 – 0.99). According to age, new average values of sub-regional BMD in lumbar vertebrae and proximal femoral sub-regions in Turkish girls were presented. Average spinal BMD values in Turkish girls were similar with western countries. We though that DEXA scan at lumbar spine, with the exception of some patients, may be enough for an accurate measurement in children.

Key words: bone mineral density, precocious puberty, lumbar spine, femur, age

Med-Science. 2012; 1(3): 188-199

 

Laparoscopic surgery for adrenal myelolipoma: Report of two cases

Case Report

Laparoscopic surgery for adrenal myelolipoma: Report of two cases

Mustafa Ates, Zuhal Karaca, Abuzer Dirican, Sinan Hatipoglu, Ibrahim Sahin, N. Engin Aydin

   

Abstract
Adrenal myelolipoma, consisting of mature fat and hematopoietic tissue, is a rare, benign and biochemically inactive tumor. Most lesions are small and asymptomatic, discovered incidentally at autopsy or on imaging studies performed for other reasons. We report two cases of adrenal myelolipoma which were large and causing symptoms and successfully removed by laparoscopic lateral transabdominal adrenalectomy. We conclude that large and symptomatic adrenal myelolipomas can be treated with laparoscopic adrenalectomy.

Key words: myelolipoma, adrenal mass, laparoscopic adrenalectomy

Med-Science. 2012; 1(3): 200-205

Accidental death due to intentionally usage of organophosphate: Report of two cases

Review Article

Accidental death due to intentionally usage of organophosphate: Report of two cases

Mustafa Doğan, Osman Celbis, Bora Ozdemir, Selim Bozkurt, Mehmet Okumus

   

Abstract
The use of organophosphates (OP) in agriculture as insecticides is widespread all over the world. Except for this purpose, it is known that OP have been using against pediculosis capitis in human. We report unusual causes of organophosphate poisoning. A 7 years old child and her mother were admitted to the emergency unit due to poisoning after exposure from emulsion of OP that was used for the treatment of head lice. The daughter who was poisoned by the way of inhalation and direct contact brought to the emergency unit with cardiac arrest. Child was revived with cardio-pulmonary resuscitation, but died at the eighteen days of the treatment in intensive care unit. The mother was bradicardic when she admitted to the emergency unit. After the primary treatment, the mother was taken to the intensive care unit. The mother was discharged after the medical treatment in the intensive care unit for 6 days. The hairs of patients were cut, clothes were removed and bodies were washed in order to avoid recontamination. This is important also for avoiding from contamination of surrounding healthcare personnel. Misuses of OP toxicities are not rare and it may be life threatening. Some of accidental poisonings are intentionally misuse for a purpose of treatment. It should be written on each box that OP should not be used for other purposes like treatment of head lice.

Key words: Organophosphate, Accidental death, Misuse, Lice

Med-Science. 2012; 1(3): 206-210

Skeletal Muscle, Myokines and Health

Review Article

Skeletal Muscle, Myokines and Health

Halil Duzova

   

Abstract
There is accumulating epidemiological evidence that a physically active life plays an independent role in the protection against metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and dementia. For most of the last century, researchers sought a link between muscle contraction and humoral changes in the form of an ‘exercise factor’, which could be released from skeletal muscle during contraction and mediate some of the exercise-induced metabolic changes in other organs such as the liver, the adipose tissue and other tissues. Researchers have suggested that cytokines or other peptides that are produced, expressed and released by muscle fibers exert autocrine, paracrine or endocrine effects should be classified as ‘myokines’. Given that skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the human body, researchers’ discovery that contracting skeletal muscle secretes proteins sets a novel paradigm: skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ producing and releasing myokines, which work in a hormone-like fashion, exerting specific endocrine effects on other organs. Other myokines work via paracrine mechanisms, exerting local effects on signaling pathways involved in muscle metabolism. It appears that skeletal muscle has the capacity to express several myokines. To date the list includes tumor necrosis factor–α (TNF-α), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-15 and IL-17. It has been suggested that myokines may contribute to exercise-induced protection against several chronic diseases. Myokines such as IL-6 is likely to shove the anti-inflammatory effects of exercise and inhibit low-level TNF-α production. By this ways, TNF-α-induced insulin resistance reveals an important role in mediating the beneficial health effects of exercise.

Key words: Exercise, IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, IL-17, Myokine, TNF-α

Med-Science. 2012; 1(3): 211-231

QALY: Quality Adjusted Life Year

Review Article

QALY: Quality Adjusted Life Year

Şelale Şahin, Selime Toprak, Erdinç Ünal

   

Abstract
Nüfusun yaşlanması ve yaşlılık dönemi hastalıklar ile kronik hastalıkların öne çıkması verilen sağlık hizmetlerinin sadece sağlık düzeyi üzerine değil yaşam kalitesine etkisinin de önemli bir çıktı olarak değerlendirilmesini getirmiştir. Aslında bu yaklaşım Dünya Sağlık Örgütünün (WHO), 1946 yılında sağlığı “yalnızca hastalık ve sakatlığın olmayışı değil, fiziksel, ruhsal ve sosyal yönden tam bir iyilik hali” olarak tanımlamasına uyan ve bu öğeleri daha tam ve kapsamlı karşılayan bir yaklaşım olmuştur.
QALY (Quality Adjusted Life Year), “Kaliteye Ayarlı Yaşam Yılı” anlamına gelen sözcüklerin kısaltmasından oluşmaktadır. Her bir ömür senesini yaşam kalitesi ile birlikte ele alan bir ölçektir. Hem yaşam beklentisindeki artışı, hem de yaşam kalitesindeki farklılaşmayı ölçer. Amaç, birçok farklı durumdaki sağlık kazanımlarının ortak bir ölçekle değerlendirilerek basit bir birimle ifade edilmesi ve birçok boyutun tek bir endekste toplanmasıdır. QALY terimi sınırlı sağlık kaynaklarının alternatif sağlık programları arasında dağıtılması sırasında karar vericilere yardımcı olan analizlerde kazanımların verimliliğini daha doğru ölçmek için geliştirilmiş bir kavramdır.
Sağlık hizmetleri finansmanında kullanılan kaynaklar, dünyadaki diğer ülkelerde olduğu gibi ülkemizde de sınırlıdır. Mevcut kaynakların yetersizliği, bunların mümkün olan en iyi şekilde kullanılması sorumluluğunu da beraberinde getirmektedir.

Key words: QALY, quality, health care, use of resources

Med-Science. 2012; 1(3): 232-243