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Effects of Medulla Spinalis Injury on Fracture Healing

Original Article

Effects of Medulla Spinalis Injury on Fracture Healing

Adil Turan, Fehmi Doruk Kuran, Ferhat Güler, Ebru Sezer, Yigit Uyanıkgil, Osman Arslan Bora

   

Abstract
In fractures developing on the basis of the nerve conduction loss occurring after spinal trauma, healing and bone metabolism demonstrate departure from normal. The objective of this study is to study the type of effect which the interruption in the nerve conduction has on bone metabolism and bone healing and to develop relevant mechanisms. 45 Wistar Albino rats were randomized and divided into 3 groups. In Group 1 (n=20), a close fracture was created at the right tibia following spinal trauma at the lumbar level. In Group 2 (n=20), a fracture was created without spinal trauma. Finally, Group 3 (n=5) was made up of rats with no intervention. On the 35th day of the study, rats were sacrificed; blood samples were taken and fractured extremities were removed. Materials were histopathologically and biochemically examined. Significant weight loss was detected postoperatively in Group 1. In the same group, blood and callus BALP levels indicating bone formation were observed to be high. A significant decrease was also identified in callus calcium levels. Employed as a determinant of bone resorption, hydroxyproline levels did not demonstrate any significant differences. On the other hand, upon histopathological examination, callus size was observed to be significantly larger in the trauma group than in the other group, while the degree of maturation was lower than that of the control group. Interruption of nerve conduction induced by spinal trauma is observed to give way to an increase in callus size, despite its negative effect on the mineralization phase of bone healing.

Key words: fracture healing, spinal injury, BALP

Med-Science. 2013; 2(4): 777-91

Medicine Science Vol:2 Issue:4 Year:2013 PP:777-954

Morphometric Study on Foramen Magnum of Human Skulls

Original Article

Morphometric Study on Foramen Magnum of Human Skulls

Shanthi CH, S.Lokanadham

   

Abstract
We utilized 100 human skulls to study the morphology and morphometric parameters of the foramen magnum in south Indian population. The anteroposterior diameter and transverse diameter of the foramen magnum were measured by using Vernier calliper to the nearest millimetre. All measurements were tabulated followed by student “t” test and descriptive statistics were done in SPSS version to know the “p” value for the significance. The mean anteroposterior diameter of foramen magnum in males was 3.71 mm and in females it was 3.38 mm. The mean transverse diameter of foramen magnum in males was 3.20 mm and in females it was 3.04 mm. The statistical analysis of morphometry of the foramen magnum in relation to sex determination values are significant (P-Value of Foramen magnum anteroposterior diameter was 0.0001 and transverse diameter was 0.015). Some literatures revealed that anteroposterior diameter of the foramen magnum alone considered for unknown sex determination. Our study reveals significant role of the foramen magnum dimensions in identification of the unknown sex.

Key words: Foramen magnum, sexual dimorphism, morphometry

Med-Science. 2013; 2(4): 792-8

Fasting and Diabetes: An Experience with Safety of Fasting in Peoples with Type II Diabetes

Original Article

Fasting and Diabetes: An Experience with Safety of Fasting in Peoples with Type II Diabetes

Ahmed Bilal, Muhammad Sohail Anjum, Zaheer Ahmed

     

Abstract
The objective the study is to determine the safety of fasting in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. This is a observational prospective study. A convenient sampling method is used to select the study population. All patients with well-controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus treated with Insulin, sulfonylureas, lifestyle modification, metformin, or a thiazolidinedione, who are otherwise healthy were included. The study included a total 0f 30 subjects, of which 14(46.7%) were male and 16(53.3%) were female. 25(83.3%) had no hypoglycemia, 4(13.3%) had 1 episode of hypoglycemia and 1(3.3%) had 2 episodes of hypoglycemia. 24(80.0%) never needed to break a fast, 5(16.7%) had 1 event of breaking the fast and 1(3.3%) had 2 events of breaking the fast. There was 1 event of missing the fast in 2(6.7%) patients. 8 (26.7%) patients were on insulin alone, 8(26.7%) were on insulin and oral hypoglycemics combination, 4(13.4%) were on single oral hypoglycemics , 7(23.3%) were on combination oral hypoglycemic and 3(10%) were on lifestyle modification. Of 8 patients on insulin therapy, only 1 had 1 event of hyperglycemia, 1 had 2 events of hyperglycemia, 2 had 3 events of hyperglycemia and 1 had 4 events of hyperglycemia. Of 4 patients on single oral hypoglycemia, no one had any event of hyperglycemia. Of 8 patients on insulin and oral hypoglycemics combination, only 2 had 1 episode of hyperglycemia and 1 had 3 episodes of hyperglycemia. Only 1 drug related hypoglycemia in sulfonylurea group. The drug was stopped and patient switched over to metformin next day. Of 4 patients on single oral hypoglycemia, no one had any event of hyperglycemia. Of 7 patients on oral hypoglycemics combination 2 had 1 and 1 had 3 episodes of hyperglycemia. 3 patients on lifestyle modification and none had any hyperglycemia. P-Value of chi square test applied was 0.820 which is insignificant showing no relation between drug regimens and hypoglycemias. Fasting in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients is usually safe if proper cautions are observed.

Key words: Fasting, Diabetes Mellitis, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia.

Med-Science. 2013; 2(4): 799-806

Effects of Adding Dexmedetomidine to Amitriptyline on Sciatic Nerve Blockadge in Rats

Original Article

Effects of Adding Dexmedetomidine to Amitriptyline on Sciatic Nerve Blockadge in Rats

Mahmut Durmus, Mukadder Sanli, Erdogan Ozturk, Aytac Yucel, Nurcin Gulhas, M. Ozcan Ersoy

   

Abstract
Abstract
Neurotoxic effects of amitriptyline which is a tricyclic antidepressant limit its use as a local anesthetic. In this study, comparing the effect of combination of different amitrptyline doses with dexmedetomidine on block initiation and termination time in sciatic nerve blockadge with amitrptyline and bupivacaine alone was aimed. A total of 42 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into groups with 7 rats in each. These groups were randomly divided into 6 groups as amitriptyline 0.625 mg (Group 1), amitriptyline 0.312 mg (Group 2), dexmedetomidine 10 μg (Group 3), amitriptyline 0.625 mg and dexmedetomidine 10 μg (Group 4), amitriptyline 0.312 mg and dexmedetomidine 10 μg (Group 5), bupivacaine 0.5% (Group 6). In the right arm with posterior approach, 0.2 mL of local anesthetic was injected with lateral incision . Effectiveness of local anesthetic was determined in terms of motor function, proprioseptive, nosiseptive sensation. In our study, amitriptyline and combination of amitrpityline-dexmedetomidine showed longer local anesthetic effect compared to bupivacaine. Mean block initiation times were shorter in bupivacaine group compared to amitriptyline group though it was not statistically significant. Adding 10 μg of dexmedetomidine to 0.625 mg amitriptyline prolonged block termination times significantly compared to 0.625 mg amitriptyline alone (p

Key words: Sciatic Nerve Blockadge, Amitriptyline, Dexmedetomidine, Bupivacaine

Med-Science. 2013; 2(4): 807-19

Cytotoxic and Genotoxic effects of Orthodontic Adhesives on Human lymphocyte – An In-vitro Study

Original Article

Cytotoxic and Genotoxic effects of Orthodontic Adhesives on Human lymphocyte - An In-vitro Study

Ravi M S, Vijay R, Suchetha Kumari N, Chirag Panchasara

   

Abstract
Aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of two orthodontic adhesives and to determine the type of cell death they induce on human lymphocytes. The materials tested were 1.Light cure orthodontic adhesive with conventional primer (Transbond XT3M) and 2. Self cure orthodontic adhesive (Unite, 3M). Cured sterile individual masses were immersed in DMEM and left at 370C for 24 h. Then a volume of 200 μL of the extract medium was mixed with human peripheral blood lymphocyte tested for comet assay by Single cell DNA Damage assay and Apoptosis by DNA diffusion agar assay. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity was carried out by Hemolysis assay method. Hemolytic activity of Self cure orthodontic adhesive (52.9± 1.82) was significantly more than that of Light Cure orthodontic adhesive (48.9±1.23). The results showed all parameters studied by comet assay were significant (P>0.05).In Case of Apoptosis, Light cure orthodontic adhesive (155.11±6.03) and self cure orthodontic adhesives (154.77±13.17) showed slightly increased diffusion of DNA compared to normal lymphocyte (111.22±8.78).However the level of DNA diffusion was not significantly different between the two adhesives. Light Cure orthodontic and self cure orthodontic adhesives were cytotoxic and induced apoptosis. The self cure orthodontic adhesive was found to be significantly more toxic than that of Light Cure orthodontic adhesive. Both the adhesives had no significant effect on the percentage of DNA tail and Tail length of the human lymphocyte.

Key words: Orthodontic Adhesives, DNA Damage, Apoptosis, Lymphocyte.

Med-Science. 2013; 2(4): 820-9

Lack of Association of Insulin Receptor Substrate Gene Polymorphisms with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

Original Article

Lack of Association of Insulin Receptor Substrate Gene Polymorphisms with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

Fulden Sarac, Afig Berdeli, Özen K. Basoglu, Sumru Savas, Merve Atan, Fehmi Akcicek

   

Abstract
Sleep apnea syndrome is associated with increased prevalence of diabetes and has recently shown to be associated with insulin resistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between insulin resistance, insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), insulin receptor substrate-2 (IRS-2) gene polymorphisms and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The study population consisted of 56 consecutive patients with OSAS and 26 subjects without OSAS were enrolled in the study. Genotyping of IRS-1 and IRS-2 were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Insulin resistance was estimated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). In OSAS patients, 2 (3.6%) had G972R gene polymorphism and 54 (96.4%) had no nucleotide substitution in IRS-1 gene whereas in the control group, there was no nucleotide substitution in IRS-1 gene (p>0.05). Besides, 47 OSAS patients (84.0%) had no nucleotide substitution, 3 (5.3%) had G1057D heterozygous, 1 (1.8%) had P1033P heterozygous, 3 (5.3%) had P1033P homozygous and 2 (3.6%) had P1033P heterozygous/G1057D heterozygous polymorphisms in IRS-2 gene. In the control subjects, 21 (80.8%) had no nucleotide substitution, 3 (11.5%) had P1033P homozygous and 2 (7.7%) had P1033P heterozygous polymorphisms in IRS-2 gene (p>0.05). There was no significant difference between two groups in terms of fasting glucose and HOMA-IR. It was observed that IRS-1 and IRS-2 gene polymorphisms didn’t increase risk for OSAS. Besides, there was no association between IRS-1 and IRS-2 polymorphisms and HOMA in OSAS.

Key words: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, insulin receptor substrate-1 gene polymorphism, insulin receptor substrate-2 gene polymorphism

Med-Science. 2013; 2(4): 830-41

Comparison of Endolaser Dacryocystorhinostomy and External Dacryocyctorhinostomy Results

Original Article

Comparison of Endolaser Dacryocystorhinostomy and External Dacryocyctorhinostomy Results

Tolga Kocatürk, Mehmet Özgür Zengin, Harun Çakmak, Müjdat Karabulut, Ceren Günel, Volkan Dayanır, Erkin Kır

   

Abstract
Aim of this study is to compare endoscopic endolaser dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) with bicanalicular silicone tube intubation (BSTI) and external DCR results. The records of patients who underwent DCR operation were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were invited to the controls in the postoperative period. In their follow-ups, changes in symptoms and findings, the duration of the tubes remain in place were recorded. 132 eyes of 124 patients were included in the study. 63 eyes of 61 patients were applied endolaser DCR (Group 1) and 69 eyes of 63 patients were applied external DCR (Group 2) (p>0.05). Patients were followed 6.6 months (2-11 months) and 5.9 months (2-7 months) in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p>0.05). Mean age of patients was 51.2 years old (range between 27-81 years) and 48.5 years old (range between 25-82 years), respectively (p>0.05). Irritative symptoms and findings were regressed and no recurrence was observed during follow-up in 54 patients (85.7%) and 64 patients (92.8%) in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p>0.05). Endolaser DCR + BSTE application seems to be an effective method in lacrimal stenosis.

Key words: Lacrimal duct stenosis, endoscopic endolaser dacryocystorhinostomy, bicanalicular silicone tube intubation

Med-Science. 2013; 2(4): 842-51

Relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D Level and Metabolic Control and Albumin Excretion Rate in Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Original Article

Relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D Level and Metabolic Control and Albumin Excretion Rate in Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Fulden Sarac, Sumru Savas, Sefa Sarac, Fehmi Akcicek

   

Abstract
The aims of the study were 1. to investigate the frequency of 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency and 2. to observe the relationships between D vitamin supplementation for 6 months and albümin excretion in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The study population included 100 patients with type 2 DM treated with insulin therapy (mean age 56.1±8.8 yrs) were enrolled in the study. Of 100 patients, 30 (mean age 65.4±6.4 yrs) had low 25(OH)D level. Patients with low 25(OH)D level received 50,000 unit of vitamin D3 orally per three weeks for 6 months. Albumin excretion rate (AER) was measured in patients with low level 25(OH) D before and after D vitamin supplementation In study group (n= 100), 30 patients had low 25(OH)D level. Concentrations of 25(OH)D were; 10 (33.3%) had insufficient vitamin D levels, 19 (63.4%) had deficient levels, 1 (3.3%) had severe deficiency in patients with deficiency. There were statistically significantly differences for plasma levels of HbA1c (p=0.001), postprandial glucose (p=0.0001), triglyceride (p=0.04), total-Cholesterol (p=0.03), LDL-Cholesterol (p=0.02), and HDL-Cholesterol (p=0.001) between D vitamin supplementation. There were high frequency of 25(OH)D deficiency in patients with type 2 diabetic patients. And also, D vitamin suplementation changed metabolic parameters such as triglyceride, total-Cholesterol, LDL-Cholesterol and HDL-Cholesterol, postprandial glucose and HbA1c levels but not albumin excretion rate.

Key words: 25-hydroxyvitamin D, diabetes mellitus, albumin excretion rate, metabolic control

Med-Science. 2013; 2(4): 852-62

Dynamic MR Urography in the Asssesment of Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction in Pediatric Patients

Original Article

Dynamic MR Urography in the Asssesment of Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction in Pediatric Patients

Rabia Mihriban Kılınç, Afak Durur Karakaya

   

Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine morphologic and functional benefits of dynamic magnetic rezonans urography (MRU) at pediatric patients with ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Between 2009-2012, sixteen pediatric patients with known ureteropelvic junction obstruction were evaluated by ultrasound and dynamic MRU retrospectively. Eight of them also had diuretic renal scintigraphy. The findings of MRU were then compared with ultrasonography for morphological evaluation, diuretic renal scintigraphy for functional evaluation and against the results of final diagnosis established at surgery. MRU failed in one patient to find obstruction like ultrasound. MRU and ultrasound was successful to evaluate morphology of urınary system all of the other patients. Results were confirmed with surgery. MRU and diuretic renal scintigraphy were similar for functional evaluation. Dynamic MRU is reliable method for morphologic and functional evaliation of pediatric ureteropelvic junction obstruction.

Key words: Ureteropelvic junction obstruction, dynamic magnetic rezonans urography, pediatric patients

Med-Science. 2013; 2(4): 863-84

The School Bullying in Sivas-Questionnaire Study

Original Article

The School Bullying in Sivas-Questionnaire Study

Celal Bütün, Fatma Yücel Beyaztaş, Halis Dokgöz, Levent Özdemir, Ali Beyaztaş, Oğuz Polat, Figen Şahin

   

Abstract
Violence among bullying, although not a new concept has increased steadily in the last period. This study, 9 and 10 in the grade of 1200 students applied to study through a survey of school violence prevention and inter-flow prevention was intended to put forward proposals for the solution in the center of Sivas. In determining the number of students included in the study stratified sampling method used and the selection of students was done with simple random sampling method. Questionnaire; sociodemographic characteristics and violence against the approach consists of containing the problem. Data SPSS (Ver: 10.0) were evaluated using the khi-square test. 722 of students (60.2%) men, 478 (39.8%) and girls, ages between 14-18 years and mean age 15.75 ± 0.85. Between gender differences in terms of violence and brute force is significant (p

Key words: Violence, bullying, school, adolescent

Med-Science. 2013; 2(4): 885-95