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Indications of Collecting Blood Culture and Necessity of Educations [Kan Kulturu Alma Nedenleri ve Egitimin Gerekliligi]

Original Article

Indications of Collecting Blood Culture and Necessity of Educations [Kan Kulturu Alma Nedenleri ve Egitimin Gerekliligi]

Irfan Oguz Sahin, Aysegul Elbir Sahin, Atilla Çayir, Deniz Okdemir, Fatih Gurbuz, Nurdan Dinlen Fettah, Esra Doger

   

Abstract
Blood culture is the most usefull test for the diagnosis of bacteremia and infectious diseases either it provides optimising the treatment to microorganism. For the treatment and management of bacteremia in child patient’s group, it is obligated to be more carefull. Therefore, blood culture is used more often in child patients group. Although, collecting blood culture without indication results cost increase due to unnecessary testing and treatments. This study is performed by investigating the results of blood cultures obtained from the patients that are hospitalized at Dışkapı Children’s Hospital in 2007 and 2008. The practitioners have been educated for blood culture obtaining techniques and indications. Number of blood culture testing and changes in indications are analysed at all departments seperately and also whole of the hospital. Blood culture collecting rates were 26.2% before and 21.9% after educations. After educations, despite increase for bacteremia related reasons, collecting blood cultures for bacteremia unrelated reasons such as indirect hyperbilirubinemia, acute bronchiolitis, acute gastroenteritis, routine procedure was decreased. After educations, number of blood culture testing was decreased. It is also observed that blood cultures are more often obtained with indication. Rate of collecting blood culture due to bacteremia independent reasons was decreased. It’s seen that routine blood culture collecting is not less and could not be eliminated completely with educations. This study emphasizes the need of routine education programs about blood cultures for medical and financial gains.

Key words: Blood culture, indications, education

Med-Science. 2014; 3(4): 1571-81

 
Medicine Science Vol:3 Issue:4 Year:2014 PP:1571-1787

The Relationship of the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor–Gamma 2 Exon 2 and Exon 6 Gene Polymorphism in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with and without Diabetic Foot Ulcers

Original Article

The Relationship of the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor–Gamma 2 Exon 2 and Exon 6 Gene Polymorphism in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with and without Diabetic Foot Ulcers

Mehmet Erdogan, Zuhal Eroglu, Soner Solmaz, Sencer Ganidagli, Asli Tetik, Abdullah Canataroglu

   

Abstract
We aims investigate Turkish type 2 diabetic patients with/without diabetic foot ulcers and healthy group and examined the contribution of the G/C exon 2 and T/C exon 6 of the PPARgamma gene polymorphism to the development of diabetic foot ulcers. The PPARgamma genotypes were determined prospectively in 50 patients with diabetic foot ulcers and 50 without diabetic foot ulcers and a control group of 50 healthy individuals. Genotyping of the G/C exon 2 and T/C exon 6 of the PPAR-gamma gene polymorphism for all individuals was performed by melting curve analysis of the generated amplicons after real-time online PCR. The genotype exon 2 and exon 6 distribution did not differ between the control group and the type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (with and without diabetic foot) (P>0.05). The frequency of the polymorphic G allele in exon 2 was no similar for the groups (6% and 1%, respectively) (p0.05). The evaluation of exon 2 and exon 6, genotype and haplotype did not show statistically significant difference between the patient diabetic foot and without diabetic foot (p>0.05). The G/C exon 2 and T/C exon 6 of the PPARgamma gene polymorphism is not an independent risk factor for diabetic foot in Turkish type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Genetic factors in the pathogenesis of diabetic foot may also show any changes in different populations.

Key words: Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Gene Polymorphism, Type 2 Diabetic Patients, diabetic foot ulcers

Med-Science. 2014; 3(4): 1725-31

Evaluation of Oxidative Stress Status and Adenosine Deaminase Activity in Hyperthyroid and Hypothyroid Patients

Original Article

Evaluation of Oxidative Stress Status and Adenosine Deaminase Activity in Hyperthyroid and Hypothyroid Patients

Tugba Raika Kiran, Aysun Bay Karabulut, Ibrahim Sahin, Cemil Colak

   

Abstract
A few prospective studies evaluated the oxidative stress variables and adenosine deaminase activity in patients with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Thus; we aimed to investigate oxidative stress variables and adenosine deaminase activity in patients with hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Study populations consisted of 20 patients with hyperthyroidism, 20 patients with hypothyroidism and 20 age matched healthy volunteers as control groups. Plasma nitric oxide, malondialdehyde levels and glutathione, adenosine deaminase activities were measured in all subjects. plasma nitric oxide and adenosine deaminase levels were higher in patients with hyperthyroidism, but lower in patients with hypothyroidism compared to those of controls (P

Key words: Hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, oxidative stress, adenosine deaminase activity

Med-Science. 2014; 3(4): 1595-604

 

In Vivo Alteration of Phase II Transformation Enzyme (GST) Levels by Stainless Steel Orthodontic Appliances

Original Article

In Vivo Alteration of Phase II Transformation Enzyme (GST) Levels by Stainless Steel Orthodontic Appliances

Dilip Daniel Quadras,Krishna Nayak U S,Suchetha Kumari N,Vijay R, Priya Gatty,Prashant Pujari

   

Abstract
Orthodontic appliances includes bands, brackets and wires which are made up of stainless steel with the composition of roughly 8-12% nickel and 17-22% chromium and other trace metals. Corrosion of orthodontic appliances can have a toxic effect on surrounding oral tissues. The main aim of the study is to analyze the Glutathione s transferase activity in saliva and blood samples of patients undergoing Orthodontic treatment. The study group included 40 participants and Samples were taken in different time intervals: Group 1- Collection of samples before the appliances fixed, Group 2- Collection of sample after one week of fixed appliances, Group 3- Collection of sample after three months of fixed appliances each from the Orthodontic Department of A.B Shetty Memorial institute of dental sciences. Glutathione S transferase was estimated using 1-chloro, 2, 4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) method. In case of Saliva group 3 (211.17±1.84) significantly increased compare to group 1 (87.05±3.86) and group 2 (118.74±2.8). In case of RBC lysate group 2(532.33±3.2) and group 3(512.40±1.16) were increased when compare to group 1(107.12±2.54). The Glutathione s transferase levels of patients increased over a period of time after treatment with orthodontic appliances but other factors like age of the patient, diet rich in antioxidants, light and strenuous physical activity, medication, amalgam fillings and genetic constitution of an individual also influenced the results.

Key words: Stainless steel orthodontic appliances, Glutathione S transferase, in vivo study

Med-Science. 2014; 3(4): 1605-13

 

HIV Preventive Measures among Adolescents Attending Secondary Schools in an Urban Community in Southwestern Nigeria

Original Article

HIV Preventive Measures among Adolescents Attending Secondary Schools in an Urban Community in Southwestern Nigeria

Adeleye Abiodun Adeomi, Oluwatosin Adediran Adeoye, James Olusegun Bamidele, Sunday Olakunle Olarewaju, Saliu Abdulsalam

   

Abstract
Many studies carried out among adolescents in Nigeria generally report the practice of preventive measures against HIV to be poor. This study was carried out to assess the HIV/AIDS preventive measures among adolescents attending secondary schools in an urban community in Southwestern Nigeria. This was a descriptive cross sectional study, carried out among in-school adolescents in Osogbo metropolis, Southwestern Nigeria. The multi-stage sampling technique was used to select the respondents and data was collected with pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaires which were self administered and supervised by trained research assistants. A total of 370 questionnaires were administered and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16. Majority knew that HIV/AIDS could be prevented by not sharing sharp objects (305, 82.4%) and the use of condom (277, 74.9%). Three hundred and twenty nine (88.9%) of the respondents were aware of condom while 205 (55.4%) were aware of HIV Counselling and Testing (HCT). Seventy four (20.0%) respondents were sexually exposed, and only 21 (5.7%) of the respondents had ever used condoms before. Only 15 (4.1%) of the respondents had had HCT before and 189 (51.1%) had had sex education before. Most of the respondents were aware of the disease called AIDS, but their comprehensive knowledge about the disease and its prevention was not correspondingly high. Twenty percent of the respondents were sexually exposed but their HIV preventive practice was generally poor; there was poor and inconsistent condom usage, poor uptake of HCT and sex education and a poor perceived self efficacy among nearly half of the respondents. The stakeholders in adolescent reproductive health should work towards the provision of straightforward and elemental information about sex, and related practical issues that normally affect adolescents, like contraception, abortion and sexually transmitted infections to adolescents.

Key words: HIV/AIDS, adolescents, preventive measures, secondary school

Med-Science. 2014; 3(4): 1614-26

 

Losartan and QT Dispersion in Hypertensive Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis

Original Article

Losartan and QT Dispersion in Hypertensive Patients on Maintenance Hemodialysis

Alparslan Ersoy, Canan Ersoy, Muge Erek Guler, Abdulmecit Yildiz

   

Abstract
QT and corrected QT (QTc) intervals and their increased dispersions (QTd, QTcd) have been linked to the occurrence of arrhythmias in hemodialysis (HD) patients. This study was performed to determine the effects of the angiotensin II receptor blocker losartan on these parameters in HD patients. Our cohort comprised 24 dialysis patients and 14 healthy controls. 15 dialysis patients were treated for 16 weeks with losartan (HD losartan group) but not 9 patients (HD control group). Blood pressures (BP) and electrocardiogram-derived data (Sokolow-Lyon and Cornell voltages, QT, QTd, QTc and QTcd) were measured in all patients. At the beginning of the study, there were no differences in patient characteristics among the 3 groups. Baseline maximum QTc, QTd, QTcd and Socolow-Lyon and Cornell voltages and BPs of the healthy group were lower than those of HD groups. While these parameters were similar in the dialysis groups, only BPs in losartan group were higher. After 16 weeks, BPs, Socolow-Lyon and Cornell voltages values in losartan group significantly decreased but not in the HD control group. Whereas maximum QT and QTc, QTd, QTcd, heart rate and QRS interval did not change in the HD groups. Electrocardiographic LVH of 2 patients improved in the losartan group. Losartan reduced BP and electrocardiographic LVH was improved in HD patients without affecting QTd and QTcd during the 16-week study period.

Key words: Hemodialysis, losartan, QT dispersion

Med-Science. 2014; 3(4): 1627-38

 

The Relationship between ABO Blood Group and Glioblastoma Multiforme

Original Article

The Relationship between ABO Blood Group and Glioblastoma Multiforme

Zeki Akca, Hasan Mutlu, Abdulsamet Erden, Abdullah Buyukcelik, Emel Yaman Sezer, Ali Inal

   

Abstract
Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most common type of primary brain tumor and its prognosis is poor. Some studies have investigated the relationship between ABO Blood Groups and cancer risk. In this study we evaluated the patients with GBM and control group regarding ABO Blood Groups. Secondly we compared the progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) regarding ABO Blood Group in patients with GBM. A total of 72 patients with GBM were enrolled from Mersin Government Hospital, Acibadem Kayseri Hospital and Kayseri Training and Research Hospital between 2006-2012. Healthy donors that were admitted to the Turkish Red Crescent Blood Service in our city in year 2012 were selected as control group. Both of groups were compared regarding ABO Blood Groups. The PFS and OS were evaluated according to ABO Blood Groups in patients with GBM. We did not find any significant difference regarding the ratio of ABO Blood Groups between patients with GBM and control group. And there were no significant difference for PFS and OS among O, A, B, AB groups in patients with GBM. According to our results, comparison of control group with healthy donors and GBM patients, the ratio of blood groups was similar in both. And ABO Blood Groups have no effect on PFS and OS in patients with GBM. Also further studies are needed to explain whether there is any relationship between ABO Blood Group and Glioblastoma Multiforme.

Key words: Glioblastoma, blood groups, survival, brain tumors

Med-Science. 2014; 3(4): 1639-47

 

The Levels of Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) in the Serum of Enterobius Vermicularis Positive Patients

Original Article

The Levels of Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) in the Serum of Enterobius Vermicularis Positive Patients

Ulku Karaman, Tugba Kiran, Cemil Colak

   

Abstract
It has been reported that the parasites can make the free oxygen radicals such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide and they contain enzymes which produce them. The cytokines play role in the regulation of immune response in living beings. The synthesizing of IL-10 is increased in Enterobius vermicularis, too. The adenosine deaminase (ADA) is also an aminohydrolase which plays role in the catabolism of purine nucleotides, inosines and deoxyinosine deamidates the adenosine and deoxyadenosine irreversibly. In the study, the comparison of ADA levels between the serums of the control group and the group of patients with E. vermicularis was aimed. In the study, the experimental group included 40 E. vermicularis positive patients. The average age of the patients is 35.2±5.4, 20 of them are men and 10 of them are women. The average age of 40 healthy Enterobius vermicularis negative people is 40.23±7.01, 31 of them are male and 9 of them are female. A significant decrease between the Enterobius vermicularis positive patients and the control group was detected in the level of ADA (p=0.0001). It can be considered that the ADA level of E. vermicularis positive patients in the study may be decreased because of increasing oxidative stress due to the parasitic infection.

Key words: E. vermicularis, Adenosine deaminase, intestinal parasites

Med-Science. 2014; 3(4): 1648-54

 

Study of Hepatoprotective Effect of Silymarin and Ursodeoxycholic Acid in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients

Original Article

Study of Hepatoprotective Effect of Silymarin and Ursodeoxycholic Acid in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients

Shahira Fawzy El Menshawe, Amira Shaban Ahmed, Lamiaa Nagy Abdel Aty, Mohamed Ahmed Abo Seif

   

Abstract
Hepatitis C virus is a major public health problem causing significant morbidity and mortality. Until recently, the standard treatment with peginterferon and rivabirin was far from being perfect due to its cost, poor tolerability and low SVR rates. Although, the novel direct-acting antiviral agents(DAAs) telaprevir, and boceprevir has dramatically improved SVR rates; issues such as adverse reactions, frequent dosing, and drug interactions still represent a challenge. Even overcoming these challenges with the new revolutionary development of sofosbuvir, its high cost still needs to be addressed. Therefore, the popularity of alternative medicines in CHC treatment such as silymarin and UDCA has increased. The multiple hepatoprotective effects of these drugs have made them attractive for evaluation in patients with different liver diseases. The aim of this study is to compare the hepatoprotective effect of silymarin, UDCA, and a combination therapy of both in chronic hepatitis C patients. Fourty CHC patients (16 males and 44 females) were recruited from hepatology clinic at Beni-Suef University. Patients were divided randomly into four equal groups of tens A, B, C and D, who received 420 mg/day silymarin capsules, 500 mg/day UDCA capsules, combined therapy of both, and a placebo treatment, respectively. Serum liver parameters were measured at baseline and repeated 12 weeks after therapy. A statistically significant improvement in mean serum levels of ALT, AST, and bilirubin was obtained with UDCA therapy either when administered alone or combined with silymarin. However, silymarin treatment failed to significantly affect liver function tests.

Key words: Silymarin, ursodeoxycholic acid, chronic hepatitis C, liver function tests

Med-Science. 2014; 3(4): 1655-74

 

Diffuse Large B cell Lymphoma with Primary Spleen Involvement: Report of Three Cases

Case Report

Diffuse Large B cell Lymphoma with Primary Spleen Involvement: Report of Three Cases

Ersin Borazan, Mehmet Yilmaz, Gokturk Maralcan, Ilyas Baskonus, Abdulkadir Yasir Bahar, Ahmet Abdulhalik Balik

   

Abstract
The spleen is the primary organ of lymphoma in only 1–2 % of all lymphoma patients. We presented three cases of primary splenic involvement of lymphoma that were treated. Presentation of cases: In the first case, four solid lesions were detected, and in the second case, a hypodense lesion of 3 cm was detected in the spleen. Two cases underwent splenectomy. No complication and recurrence were observed during 22 – 21 months follow-up, respectively. In the third case, a splenic mass invading pancreas was detected. Splenectomy and distal pancreatectomy were performed. No recurrence was observed during 8-year follow-up. In postoperative period, all cases were treated with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, prednisone plus rituximab for 6 cycles. Primary splenic lymphoma refers to the involvement of the spleen only or with splenic hilar lymph node or local invasion without liver involvement. The pathologic diagnosis was diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma in the all cases. Splenic mass biopsy has some complication risks. Aspiration biopsy of splenic mass was performed in one of the three cases. Invasions should be evaluated in terms of malignity during splenectomy, and liver biopsy and biopsies of lymph nodes can be performed in case of lymphoma. Additionally diagnosis should be confirmed via post-operative bone marrow biopsy and positron emission tomography screening. Primary splenic involved lymphoma must be kept in mind for differential diagnosis in cases with splenic mass. Splenectomy is one of the most common modality for primary splenic lymphomas in terms of both diagnostic and curative treatment.

Key words: Non-hodgkin lymphoma, splenic involvement, splenectomy

Med-Science. 2014; 3(4): 1675-84