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Risk Factors contributing to Methylation Shifts in BRCA1 and associated genes in African Americans with Triple Negative Breast Cancer

Review Article

Risk Factors contributing to Methylation Shifts in BRCA1 and associated genes in African Americans with Triple Negative Breast Cancer

Anson Marsh, Sathees Chandra

   

Abstract
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains one of the most lethal breast cancers while only accounting for 10-20% of all breast cancers. Mortality rates are a staggering 50%, with high likelihood of metastasis to other tissues if left untreated. This is due to this cancer’s heterogeneous nature and differentiation from other breast cancers, negatively staining for common mutations in estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2). The patient population is shifted more towards African Americans (AA) with increased incidence and mortality rates. To date the nature of this statistic remains multifaceted with no clear therapeutic regiment. Through the identification of methylation as viable cause for TNBC, the exploration of environmental, genetic, and socioeconomic risk factors serve as an important aspect of overall mortality rate. This review seeks to investigate the relationship between AA with TNBC and potentially important DNA methylation markers that change in response to multiple risk factors.

Key words: Methylation, TNBC, African Americans, Environment, and BRCA1

Med-Science. 2017; 6(4): 787-792

Medicine Science Vol:6 Issue:4 Year:2017 PP:614-792

Antimicrobial activity and antioxidant potential of the methanolic leaf extracts of three cultivars of date palm trees (Phoenix dactylifera) from Saudi Arabia

Original Article

Antimicrobial activity and antioxidant potential of the methanolic leaf extracts of three cultivars of date palm trees (Phoenix dactylifera) from Saudi Arabia

Emad Mohamed Abdallah, Khalid Musa, Kamal Qureshi, Alaa Sadeek

   

Abstract
The date palm tree (Phoenix dactylifera) is one of the oldest cultivated plants ever known; it is considered as the life tree for Arabs. However, no adequate information about the bioactivity of the leaves. In this study, the methanol extract of leaves demonstrated the presence of some compounds with potential biomedical properties for human, which were cardiac steroids, flavonoids, phenols/polyphenols, phytosterols, quinines, saponins, tannins and resin. The results of the antimicrobial test indicate that the methanol leaf extracts of the three date palm cultivars contained potential antibacterial agents, particularly against Gram-positive bacteria and no antifungal effect detected against Candida albicans. The most susceptible bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus cereus and Enterococcus faecalis, respectively.The antioxidant activities of extracts of different leaf cultivars obtained with methanol were also investigated, using DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-2-picrymhydrasyl hydrate)radical-scavenging activity assay, all extracts exhibited considerable antioxidant potential. The current investigation suggests that leaves of date palm can be used as a promising source for natural antibacterial and antioxidant drugs.

Key words: Antimicrobial, antibacterial, antioxidant, phytochemical, leaf extract, date palm, Phoenix dactylifera

Med-Science. 2017; 6(4): 614-619

 

Medication adherence of patients with chronic diseases: a study in the Black Sea region of Turkey

Original Article

Medication adherence of patients with chronic diseases: a study in the Black Sea region of Turkey

Kursad Yapar

   

Abstract
Chronic diseases are among the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. Chronic diseases can be controlled and their frequencies can be reduced through fight against risk factors such as obesity, smoking, and insufficient physical exercise; early diagnosis, and appropriate treatment. In this study, we aim to assess the medication adherence of individuals with chronic diseases. In this descriptive study, the sample includes individuals who have been diagnosed with chronic diseases and who have applied to a public hospital. The data collection is performed with a questionnaire form with questions on socio-demographic features and on the chronic illness, and with the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8. 68% of the patients who participated in the study were female and 32% of them were male. It has been found that 51.4% of the patients (5.35±2.5) had low medication adherence. For those patients who have stated that they got information regarding the treatment and who had high levels of belief that the treatment could help them control the disease, the medication adherence score was significantly higher (p

Key words: Chronic disease, medication treatment, medication adherence

Med-Science. 2017; 6(4): 620-624

 

The reasons for regimen shift among people living with HIV/AIDS in Asella Referral Hospital

Original Article

The reasons for regimen shift among people living with HIV/AIDS in Asella Referral Hospital

Belay Kasu, Gemechu Zeleke, Fanta Gashe

   

Abstract
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is the base for management of patients with HIV infection. On the other hand, a switch in the antiretroviral regimen could be compulsory because of various reasons. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the causes for initial antiretroviral regimen switch among adult HIV/ADIS patients. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on patient information records of those visited the ART clinic since February 2013 to January 2015 in Asella Referral Hospital. Results: From 1468 patients’ medical information reviewed, 221 of them changed their initial HAART regimens. Among these patients, 38% of them changed their first medications as a consequence of drug toxicity which was mainly triggered by AZT/3TC/NVP. The major cause for changing AZT/3TC/NVP treatment regimen associated with drug toxicity was anemia (17.85%). Other reasons stated for medication shift were co-morbidity, treatment failure, poor adherence and pregnancy. Since most of regimen modifications were in consequence of drug toxicity, these medication shifts require careful patient follow up; frequent laboratory result monitoring and selection of the right antiretroviral regimens.

Key words: Antiretroviral therapy, HIV/AIDS, regimen change, Asella

Med-Science. 2017; 6(4): 625-628

 

Investigation of the protective and treatment effects of vinpocetine in myocardial infarctional with isoprotenol in rats

Original Article

Investigation of the protective and treatment effects of vinpocetine in myocardial infarctional with isoprotenol in rats

Taner Guven, Mehmet Ediz Sarihan, Hakan Parlakpinar, Nigar Vardi, Kevser Tanbek

   

Abstract
As aim of this study, the knowledge of whether vinpocetine (VİNPO) is cardioprotective or not following isoprotenol (İSO) induced cardiac ischemia in rats. In myocard infarction, the one of the responsible mechanisms of injury is oxidative damage and inflammmation. The effect of Vinpo which is the potent antioxidant and anti inflammatory agent aimed to reveal as the biochemical, electrophysiological, and histopathologic parameters. In this study, thirty- two Wistar-Albino male rats (in the estimated weight of 250-400gm.) were divided into four groups, each consisting of eight rats. The group 1 named as sham, no any drug used in this group. Group 2 named as iso group, only isoprotenol was adminestered, the group 3 named as vinpo and iso group, here initially vinpocetine then isopretenol were used, and the group 4 named as iso and vinpo, here initially isoprotenol then vinpocetine were used. For the rats in group 2, in first and second day isoprotenol adminestered at a dose of 120mg/kg using an intraperitoneal injection. At third and fourth day no any drug used. And at fifth day the experiment terminated. For the rats in group 3, at the first and second day Vinponcetine adminestered at adose of 20 mg/kg using an intraperitoneal injection, after 30 minute isoprotenol administered at adose of 120mg/kg using an intraperitoneal injection. At third and fourth day no any drug was used. And at fifth day experiment was terminated. Lastly for the rats in group4, first and second day isoprotenol administered at adose of 120mg/kg using an intraperitoneal injection, at third and fourth day vinpocetine adminestered at adose of 20 mg/kg using an intraperitoneal injection, and at fifth day experiment terminated. Prior to termination of experiment the pulse rate and ECG changes were recorded. After completion of experiment protocols blood samples and cardiac tissue samples were recieved. For the knowledge of effects of vinpocetine experimental miyocardial ischemia induced in rats, and the serum myoglobulin, total creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanin aminotransferase (ALT), measured. In myocardial tissue as an antioxidative system and an oxidative stres markers; malonylaldehate (MDA), Superoxidedismutase (SOD), Catalase (CAT), Glutathionperoxidase (GPx), GSH, Total oxidant status (TOS),Total antioxidant status(TAS),Oxidative stres index (OSİ) studied. As a result, Vinpocetin showed positive impact on cardiac functions. With all of these for the best clear results, advanced studies are needed.

Key words: Isoproterenol, vinpocetin, rat, heart

Med-Science. 2017; 6(4): 629-634

 

The evaluation of efficacy of three different ultrasonography methods for verification of gastric tube placement in intensive care unit patients

Original Article

The evaluation of efficacy of three different ultrasonography methods for verification of gastric tube placement in intensive care unit patients

Funda Gok

   

Abstract
Gastric tube (GT) placement is a routine procedure in critically ill patients. Improper placement of GT could lead to severe complications. Radiography remains as the gold standard test to confirm tube position. The study aim is to estimate diagnostic accuracy of three different ultrasonography (USG) methods to verify GT placement in intensive care units (ICU).
Twenty-five mechanically ventilated patients were included in this prospective and observational study. All real time US examinations were performed by an intensivist in three steps: sonography ofneck for visualizing esophagus and upper abdominal quadrant for visualizing stomach,and visualisation of dynamic fogging during water and air insufflations in gastric area. Finally, gastric placement of GT was confirmed with abdominal radiography.
USG visualized GT in esophagus in 24 (96 %) patients. GT was directly visualized in stomach in 16 (64%) patients and dynamic fogging occurred in 20 (80 %) in the first attempt and in 23 (92 %) patients after tube removal. Because gastric tube was not seen in stomach in nine cases, dynamic fogging allowed to confirm intragastric position in seven cases. In two cases, no dynamic fogging was observed, and radiography confirmedtube malposition in esophagus. Entire sonographic procedure took 7.24±2.58 minutes.
Visualization of the esophagus and dynamic fogging improves the diagnostic accuracy of USG in verifying GT position. Confirming correct GT placement by USG has the potential to reduce X-ray usage and save time. However, X-ray remains the gold standard in cases in which USG cannot verify placement of the GT.

Key words: Esophagus, gastric tube placement, intensive care unit, ultrasonography

Med-Science. 2017; 6(4): 635-639

 

Is there a relation between the changes in circulating lymphocyte counts due to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and intratumoral lymphocytic response and tumor regression grade in locally advanced rectal cancers?

Original Article

Is there a relation between the changes in circulating lymphocyte counts due to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and intratumoral lymphocytic response and tumor regression grade in locally advanced rectal cancers?

Necdet Fatih Yasar, Bartu Badak, Alaattin Ozen, Deniz Arik, Funda Canaz, Bulent Yildiz, Mehmet Kayhan, Ugur Bilge, Setenay Oner, Durmus Etiz

   

Abstract
There are controversies about the relation between the peripheral lymphocyte levels and response to neoadjuvant therapy. While some authors have reported that a positive correlation between peripheral lymphocyte levels and tumor response, others have suggested the opposite. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the possible relations between the changes in circulating lymphocyte counts due to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) and intratumoral lymphocytic response (ILR) and tumor regression grade (TRG) in locally advanced rectal cancers. Lymphocyte levels before, during and after CRT as well as before surgery and pathologic findings including ILRs and TRGs were recorded. Lymphocyte levels before CRT were accepted as absolute values. After the changes in the lymphocyte levels during and after CRT and before the surgery were recorded as ratios to the absolute values, the relation between the changes in lymphocyte levels, ILR and TRG were studied by using Pearson and Spearman correlation tests. There was a positive correlation between changes in peripheral lymphocytic levels after neoadjuvant CRT and ILRs. However, there were no other correlations between changes in lymphocytic levels and TRGs and ILRs. The changes in the peripheral lymphocyte counts after CRT may be predictive for ILR. Further studies may provide more information about the relation between peripheral lymphocytes and TILs and tumor response to neoadjuvant CRT.

Key words: Rectal neoplasms, neoadjuvant therapy, lymphocyte count, intratumoral lymphocytic response, tumor regression grade

Med-Science. 2017; 6(4): 640-642

The relation between cervical and thoracal disc herniations and multiple sclerosis plaques: a retrospective review

Original Article

The relation between cervical and thoracal disc herniations and multiple sclerosis plaques: a retrospective review

Ozgul Ocak, Mustafa Cetiner, Yasar Zorlu, Ufuk Sener, Murat Uygur

   

Abstract
The aim of the study is the evaluation cervical and thoracal disc herniations are predisposant factor to the formation and activation of plaques formation of relapsing remitting (R-R ) type multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. We performed a retrospective study on R-R type MS diagnosed patients who also had cervical and thoracal disc herniations. 185 cervical and 136 thoracic ın total 321 MR images of 104 (42 men, 62 women) MS patients with R-R type were evaluated retrogradly. When we evaluate the association between cervical or thoracal disc herniation and MS plaques we determined the same localization of cervical herniation and MS plaques was statistically significant. In conclusion, cervical and thoracic disc herniations may contribute to distrupion of blood brain barrier by generating microtraumas and this may lead to MS plaque formation. Therefore, early and effective treatment of MS patients having disc compression is crucial for preventing from sequels and for providing a better life quality.

Key words: Multiple Sclerosis, cervical disc herniations, thoracal disc herniations, spinal cord compression

Med-Science. 2017; 6(4): 643-645

Polypharmacy and associated factors in people living in a nursing home in Kayseri Turkey

Original Article

Polypharmacy and associated factors in people living in a nursing home in Kayseri Turkey

Semsinnur Gocer, Osman Gunay, Tuncay Polat, Rabiye Ozlem Ulutabanca, Zehra Incedal Sonkaya

   

Abstract
It has been found that residents of nursing homes have more frequent drug side effects, because they use more drugs than those living in the community. This study was conducted to determine the status of polypharmacy and related factors among the individuals living in a nursing home. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted in a nursing home in the provincial centre of Kayseri in 2016. A socio-demographic questionnaire and Standardized Mini Mental Test (SMMT) were used for data collection. A total of 99 participants were included in the study. Chi square test, unpaired t test and one-way ANOVA test (Posthoc Scheffe test) were used for statistical analyses. Results: It was determined that, 58.6% of the study group was male, mean age was 76.0±9.5 years, and 88.9% used at least one kind of medicine. The prevalence rate of polypharmacy was found 59.6%. According to SMMT scores, 66.7% of the participants had cognitive impairment. Prevalence rate of polypharmacy was found 69.0% among the individuals with cognitive impairment. From the standpoint of polypharmacy, statistically significant differences were found between the participants having and not having chronic diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes, heart disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusions: Polypharmacy was determined in more than half of the individuals living in nursing home. Individuals living in nursing homes should be informed about the use of medicines and their medicine use should be closely monitored.

Key words: Nursing home, elderly, polypharmacy, chronic disease, cognitive status

Med-Science. 2017; 6(4): 646-652

Beneficial effects of melatonin on acetylsalicylic acid induced liver damage in rats

Original Article

Beneficial effects of melatonin on acetylsalicylic acid induced liver damage in rats

M. Ediz Sarihan, Hakan Parlakpinar, Alaattin Polat, Nigar Vardı, Onural Özhan, Ahmet Acet

   

Abstract
We investigated the effects of acute high doses of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on liver tissue and the protective and therapeutic effects of melatonin on ASA related damage. Forty rats were randomly divided into five groups of eight: group 1, control; group 2, administered 200 mg/kg ASA; group 3, administered 5 mg/kg melatonin 45 min before ASA; group 4, administered 5 mg/kg melatonin 45 min after ASA; group 5, administered 5 mg/kg melatonin. We measured malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), myeloperoxidase (MPO) aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) in the liver. ASA treatment significantly increased MDA and MPO production, whereas it significantly decreased levels of SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH in the liver. Melatonin significantly decreased MDA and MPO production, whereas it caused increased levels of antioxidants. AST and ALT levels were higher after ASA treatment, whereas these levels were reduced significantly after melatonin administration. Our histopathological findings, including apoptosis, were consistent with the biochemical results. Melatonin exhibits beneficial effects against high dose ASA induced hepatotoxicity.

Key words: Acetylsalicylic acid, liver, melatonin, oxidative stress, rat.

Med-Science. 2017; 6(4): 653-658