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Betrayal trauma, dissociative experiences and dysfunctional family dynamics: Flashbacks, self-harming behaviors and suicide attempts in post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociative disorders

Invited Review

Betrayal trauma, dissociative experiences and dysfunctional family dynamics: Flashbacks, self-harming behaviors and suicide attempts in post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociative disorders

Erdinc Ozturk, Barishan Erdogan

Abstract

Betrayal trauma consists of negative life experiences in which the victims are close to the traumatizing people as well as institutions for which they rely upon protection, support, resources and survival. In most cases, it operates as a dynamic of dysfunctional families which are described as pathologically-structured patterns of thoughts, emotions and behaviors, which function as violence-oriented negative child-rearing styles and generate childhood traumas. Trauma-related psychopathologies frequently discussed with these notions tend to be correlated to a high risk of self-harming behaviors and suicide attempts. It is, thus, of great importance to comprehend, explain and approach suicide attempts in trauma-related psychopathologies such as post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociative disorders by taking the dysfunctional familial dynamics and succeeding betrayal trauma both in clinical and forensic settings. Thus, in this review, betrayal trauma, dissociative experiences and dysfunctional family dynamics were discussed in terms of the dissociogenic reactions directed to them as well as flashbacks, suicide attempts and self-harming behaviors.

Keywords: Betrayal trauma, dissociation, dysfunctional families, flashbacks, self-harming behaviors, suicide attempts, childhood trauma, trauma-related psychopathologies, intergenerational transmission of trauma

Med-Science. 2021; 10(4): 1546-9
Medicine Science Vol:10 Issue:4 Year:2021 PP:1087-1567

Dissociogenic components of oppression and obedience in regards to psychotraumatology and psychohistory

Review Article

Dissociogenic components of oppression and obedience in regards to psychotraumatology and psychohistory

Erdinc Ozturk, Barishan Erdogan.

Abstract

Today, oppression is addressed by various disciplines on the basis of modern psychotraumatology and psychohistory paradigms. From a psychotraumatological perspective, oppression, as negative occurrences that force obedience that individuals and societies have to encounter at certain rates, is characterized by dissociative experiences and post-traumatic stress reactions. According to psychohistory, on the other hand, oppression may maintain its control and obedience-oriented domination on both individuals and societies on the basis of violence-focused as well as unempathetic negative child-rearing styles and intergenerational transmission of traumas. Oppression, which is also a socially negative life experience, may force individuals to obey by both traumatizing and dissociating them. In postmodern societies, oppression can be defined as providing absolute control and dominance over individuals and societies by creating fear of chaos over individuals and societies with excessive or variable use of digital communication networks by dominant/authoritarian leaders. Especially since digital network platforms make cyber anonymity “exceedingly” possible, the masses who use these platforms excessively and uncontrollably can both easily overcome the interpersonal boundaries that they would not normally violate, and also lose their ability to grasp the reality or truth in the face of highly contradictory stimuli they are exposed to. Individuals who are unable to realize, grasp and comprehend reality may begin to dissociate themselves in the face of oppression over time. As a strategy of control, obedience and manipulation, oppression continues to exist with its dominance over individuals who show conformity to strict rules on a pathological basis in order to ensure the legitimacy of the system, which does not have the ability to stretch. Being able to effectively fight against oppression, which is a social traumatic experience, can be achieved by neutralizing violence-oriented and unempathetic negative child-rearing styles, as psychotraumatology -especially psychohistory- emphasizes, and by adopting empathetic child-rearing styles with a positive nature that are “away from oppression and control”. The aim of this study is to evaluate the dissociogenic components of oppression and obedience in terms of psychotraumatology and psychohistory.

Key words: Oppression, obedience, psychotraumatology, psychohistory, dissociation, reversible society, trauma denial, intergenerational transmission of trauma, intergenerational transmission of psychopathology, overstimulation, stimulus deprivation

Med-Science.2021; 10(3): 1059-68